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M3 & M8 - X-Ray Machine

Project No.: M3 & M8

Project Title: X-Ray Machine


Since the development of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Roentgen, X-rays have been used mainly in taking diagnostic pictures for medical studies and examinations. After years of development and improvements, its applications have further been extended to medical therapy, planetary or satellite exploratory, as well as non-destructive testing in the study of material science. As the gamma rays penetrate through the tissue of human body, the rays may increase slightly the chance of getting cancer in later life. Therefore, unnecessary exposure to such radiation should be avoided particularly on the training of personnel working in this area.

To facilitate a safe training environment on the topic, a scaled X-ray machine is required for the students of the Optometry and Radiography Department.


In general, an X-ray machine consists of 5 main components. As shown in the following photos, these components include the X-ray head, The rotation arm, the intensifier, the turntable, and the control panel.

As illustrated in the schematic diagram below, the X-ray head provides housing for the X-ray source and the Collimator. The rotation arm allows the X-ray head and the Intensifier to be rotated about the Column. While the turntable gives accurate X, Y & Z positioning for the patient lying on it, the control box contains all the electronic equipment required for controlling the movement of the motors.


This illustrating model should be portable in size as it is to be used in the laboratory or classroom. Therefore, the maximum height of the machine should not be greater than 650 mm. Other specific requirements are listed below: -

1. Movement of the rotation arm should be กำ180 degrees with index markings on the column.

2. Movement of the turntable should be กำ90 degrees having an iso-centre with the X-ray head.

3. The aperture for the X-ray source should adapt a square or a rectangle in shape.

4. The control box should provide keyboard, switches, and indicating lights for controlling the computer and the dc motors.


Owing to the time limit, 3 groups of students will be allocated to this project. One group of ENC students will be responsible for the design and manufacture of the control box and the control circuit. Two groups of ME students will be responsible for the design, manufacture and assembly of the hardware.